History of the Tudeh Party of Iran (2023)

History of the Tudeh Party of Iran

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(Video) Top 10 Facts About The Tudeh Party of Iran l حزب تودۀ ایران

The Birth of the Communist Movement in Iran
With the growth of industry, and along with it the development of the capitalist mode of production in the late 19th and early 20th century, Marxist ideology found its way to Iran. The social and political scene of that era can be summarised as the period of historical transformation of the Iranian society from feudalism to capitalism.

Towards the turn of the century, anti-despotic actions developed dramatically, and an ever-increasing number of people took part in the revolutionary struggle. Underground political organisations were formed in major cities of Iran, to mobilise and lead the masses particularly in Tabriz, Tehran and Esfahan. Among them was a political grouping formed in 1898 by Ali Monsieur, an outstanding intellectual from Tabriz. This organisation later became one of the strong centres of the anti-despotic struggle. Social democracy was first brought to the country by those Iranian workers who travelled to Caucasus's (Ghafghaz), and Russia's Asian countries, for seasonal work, especially in the Baku oil industry (more than half the workers in Baku oil fields were Iranian). It was from these workers that great Iranian revolutionaries like Heidar Amou Oghly (one of the leaders of the Constitutional Revolution, and the general secretary of the Communist Party of Iran) were raised. In 1904, in order to organise revolutionary social democratic activities among the people of Azarbaijan and other Iranians, a political group called "Hemmat" (Aspiration) was founded in Baku.

In the same year, leaflets and pamphlets published by the Baku, Tbilisi, and Tabriz branches of the Social Democrat Workers' Party of Russia (Bolsheviks) were distributed by Ali Monsieur not only in Azarbaijan and other areas of Iran, but also after translation into Arabic, in the Iraqi cities of Baghdad and Kazemein. Between 1901 and 1902, the central organ of the Bolshevik Party, Iskra, was sent to Baku from Berlin via Tabriz. The operation was organised by Lenin himself and Kropskaya. The "Hemmat" group for the first time translated the term "Social Democracy" into Persian, in order to make it more understandable for Iranian people who had no knowledge of European languages.

Having returned from Russia, in 1904, Heidar Amou Oghly, together with some of his comrades, organised the first cells of the revolutionary Social Democrats of Iran in Mashhad. A year later, on the eve of the Constitutional Revolution, the first official document of the social democratic movement in Iran was adopted at a meeting in Mashhad. Following the victory of the Russian Revolution in February 1917 and the overthrow of the Tsarist regime, Iranian revolutionaries who had immigrated to Russia found the opportunity to organise openly, increase their activities and establish their offices. In May 1917, the Iranian Social Democrat Party Edalat (Justice), was founded officially, and published its programme in two languages, Persian and Azari, in Baku.

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The downfall of the bourgeois government of Russia, led to an even greater opportunity for the Iranian living in that country, to increase their political- social activities, and establish their party.

In Gilan (northern Iran), social democrats, together with revolutionary intellectuals and peasants staged a united uprising. Against this background, in June 1920, the first congress of the Iranian social democrats was convened in Bandar-e Anzali (a northern Iranian port) and officially founded the Communist Party of Iran. Heidar Amou Oghly was elected as the leader of the Communist Party of Iran.

The British government who wanted the defeat of the Communist Party of Iran, penetrated the movement, and by deceiving a number of its leaders prepared for a carefully planned plot. Using Mirza Kouchak Khan as a tool assassinated Heidar Amou Oghly and a number of other leading figures of the Communist Party of Iran and ordered an attack on the party organisations in Rasht and Bandar-e Anzali (two major cities of Gilan). At the same time the central government which was waiting for an opportunity, sent its troops to Gilan to break the resistance. This marked the end of the open activity of the Communist Party of Iran, and once more forced it underground.

(Video) Tudeh at 80: Keynote: The Tudeh Party in the 1940s as a Social Movement

The Communist Party of Iran helped to found the Union of the Oil Workers in 1925, when Reza Shah took power and two years later, under increasing pressure from the police, was forced to take the trade union underground. Women's and youth organisations were established as a result of the activities of Iranian communists. In 1923 "Peyk-e Saadat-e Nesvan" (messenger of Women's prosperity) was formed and in 1926 the women's group "Bidarye Ma" (Our Awakening) was established. With the intention of ending the growth of these movements in the country, Reza Shah stepped up the suppression and in 1929 passed a bill through the Iranian parliament, banning all communist activity in Iran. These years are also marked by the appearance of Dr. Taghi Arani in the leadership of the Communist Party of Iran. The new party leadership, which was endeavoring to unite the ranks of the organisation, launched a theoretical journal, called Donya (the world) in early 1932. A year later, by the decision of the Central Committee of the party, Donya became the official organ of the Communist Party of Iran.

In 1936, Reza Shah's police succeeded in capturing Dr. Arani and a group of his associates, known as the group of 53. It was only two years later that under public pressure, the regime was forced to try the imprisoned communists. The trial in fact turned against the regime itself. In a historical, 6 hours long defence, Dr. Arani not only openly exposed the regime of Reza Shah but also set out to defend the principles of socialism. Dr. Arani was later murdered in prison.

The Formation of the Tudeh Party of Iran
Reza Shah was entering into a secret alliance with Nazi Germany. Consequently, on 25 August 1941, the Allied Forces entered Iranian territory. The north of Iran was occupied by Soviet Union and south by British and United States forces. Reza Shah was forced to exile and the British succeeded in bringing his son, Mohammad Reza Shah to power. Taking advantage of the vacuum created after the events of August, the Tudeh Party of Iran was formed in September 1941 to continue the work of the banned Communist Party of Iran under conditions of open activity. Following the collapse of Reza Shah's regime, with the new conditions prevailing, a large group of political prisoners were released. These included Dr. Arani's group (known as the Group of 53) who adhered to the communist ideology. The first foundation stones of the Tudeh Party of Iran were laid by these communists. On 29 September 1941, the founding conference of the TPI was held in Tehran under the chairmanship of Soleiman Mohsen Eskandari. Later the Tudeh Party of Iran turned into a significant and influential political force.

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It was in 1942 that the Party succeeded in gaining recognition and launched its central organ "Siasat" (Politics). The Party's ranks grew. In a short time, Party cells and trade union organisations were formed in many industrial centres. In a year's time the Party had formed extensive organisations in many counties and provinces. County organisations were set up in Azarbaijan, Esfahan, Gilan, Mazandaran and Khorasan. The most important Party organisation was in Tehran which convened its first conference in October 1942 with 120 participants. The Conference decided to replace the paper "Siasat", which had closed following the expulsion of, its editor from the Party, with the paper "Rahbar" (Leader) as the Party's central organ.

In 1944, having assessed its strength, the Party decided to enter the elections to the 14th parliament. Eight of the Party's candidates were elected to the Parliament and formed the Tudeh faction.

At this time the Party's total official membership was 25,000. It was therefore the Party's priority to convene a congress in order to reorganise its structure. The Party's first congress was opened on 1st August 1945 in the Party's Central Club with the participation of 164 delegates.

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History of the Tudeh Party of Iran (1)Page 2History of the Tudeh Party of Iran (2)


What is the Marxist party of Iran? ›

The Communist Party of Iran (CPI; Persian: حزب کمونیست ایران) is an Iranian communist party founded on 2 September 1983. It has an armed wing and its membership is predominantly Kurdish. The CPI is active throughout the industrialised areas of Iran. "Workers of all countries, unite!"

Is Iran capitalist or socialist? ›

The party's ideology is Islamic socialism, Social democracy and Anti-imperialism.

Why did Iran overthrow the Shah? ›

Its causes continue to be the subject of historical debate and are believed to have stemmed partly from a conservative backlash opposing the westernization, modernization and secularization efforts of the Western-backed Shah, as well as from a more popular reaction to social injustice and other shortcomings of the ...

Who overthrew the Shah of Iran in 1979? ›

Rise and exile of Ayatollah Khomeini (1963–1979)

The post-revolutionary leader—Shia cleric Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini—first came to political prominence in 1963 when he led opposition to the Shah and his White Revolution.

Why is Iran controversial? ›

The government is criticized both for restrictions and punishments that follow the Islamic Republic's constitution and law, and for "extrajudicial" actions by state actors, such as the torture, rape, and killing of political prisoners, and the beatings and killings of dissidents and other civilians.

What religion do Marxists believe? ›

On the other hand, Marxist philosophy is famously atheistic, although some Marxist scholars, both Christian and non-Christian, have insisted that Marxist philosophy and the philosophy of Marx and Engels are significantly different from one another and that this difference needs recognition.

Can Americans live in Iran? ›

U.S. citizens who stay in Iran longer than one year, and who reside outside Iran, need to obtain an exit permit to leave the country. U.S. citizens residing in Iran on permanent resident visas must obtain an exit permit each time they depart Iran, regardless of the period of stay.

Is freedom of speech legal in Iran? ›

The Iranian Constitution states very general rules concerning freedom of expression. Article 24 states: "Publications and the press have freedom of expression except when it is detrimental to the fundamental principles of Islam or the rights of the public.

Does Iran tax its citizens? ›

Individuals of Iranian nationality resident in Iran are subject to tax on all their income whether earned in Iran or abroad. Foreign nationals working in Iran are also subject to the same income tax based on their salary. Non-resident individuals are liable to pay tax only on their Iranian-sourced income.

Did the US support the Shah of Iran? ›

The Shah received significant American support during his reign. He frequently made state visits to the White House, and received praise from numerous American presidents. The Shah's close ties to Washington and his modernization policies soon angered some Iranians, especially the hardcore Islamic conservatives.

Who ruled Iran before the Shah? ›

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi
PredecessorReza Shah
SuccessorMonarchy abolished Ruhollah Khomeini as Supreme Leader
Born26 October 1919 Tehran, Sublime State of Persia
Died27 July 1980 (aged 60) Cairo, Egypt
27 more rows

Was the Shah backed by the US? ›

Following the coup in 1953, a government under General Fazlollah Zahedi was formed which allowed Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran (Persian for 'king'), to rule more firmly as monarch. He relied heavily on United States support to hold on to power.

What happened in Iran after the Shah left? ›

On January 16, 1979, the shah left the country, and Khomeini assumed control. Although the shah did not abdicate, a referendum resulted in the declaration on April 1, 1979, of an Islamic republic in Iran.

Did the Shah of Iran have children? ›

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

When did Persia become Iran? ›

In 1935 the Iranian government requested those countries which it had diplomatic relations with, to call Persia "Iran," which is the name of the country in Persian. The suggestion for the change is said to have come from the Iranian ambassador to Germany, who came under the influence of the Nazis.

What is forbidden in Iran? ›

Homosexual behaviour, adultery and sex outside of marriage are illegal under Iranian law and can carry the death penalty. See our information and advice page for the LGBT community before you travel. Women's magazines and DVDs or videos depicting sexual relations are forbidden. There are occasional clampdowns.

What is considered taboo in Iran? ›

Sex out of marriage is considered to be illegal, non-religious, immoral, and taboo in Iran. Risky sexual behaviors, such as condomless sex, multiple sexual partners, starting sex at an early age, adversely affect young people's health and expose them to sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy to females.

What manners are considered rude in Iran? ›

When someone offers something to you (e.g. tea, sweets), refuse it initially out of politeness before accepting. It is rude to put your feet on the table. Burping and sniffing in front of others is considered rude. One should not touch people of the opposite gender unless they are very close family or friends.

Did Karl Marx want to get rid of religion? ›

He thought that if the comfort blanket of religion was taken away, at last the workers would have to do something about their terrible condition. In Marx's dream of a communist revolution, religion would be abolished, and the workers would be so happy being equal they simply wouldn't need it anymore.

Is China an atheist state? ›

The Chinese Communist Party is officially atheist, but it recognizes five religions: Buddhism, Catholicism, Daoism, Islam, and Protestantism. Authorities tightly monitor registered and unregistered groups.

Was Karl Marx Russian or German? ›

Political theorist Karl Marx (1818–1883) was born in Trier, Germany. Although both his grandfathers were rabbis, Marx's father converted his eight children to Protestantism in 1824.

Can Americans drink alcohol in Iran? ›

Allowances for non-Muslims

Bringing alcohol into Iran is illegal.

Can a US citizen buy property in Iran? ›

Yes, within the framework of the law and bylaws of aliens' proprietorship, ownership of land within the confines of personal use is allowed for foreign natural persons. Establishing the ownership [however] requires acquiring special permit from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Can an Iranian marry a US citizen? ›

The fiancé(e) K-1 nonimmigrant visa is for the foreign-citizen fiancé(e) of a U.S. citizen. The K-1 visa permits the foreign-citizen fiancé(e) to travel to the United States and marry his or her U.S. citizen sponsor within 90 days of arrival.

Does Iran have women's rights? ›

In several areas of their lives, including in marriage, divorce, employment, and culture, Iranian women are either restricted or need permission from their husbands or paternal guardians, depriving them of their autonomy and human dignity.

Can you be atheist in Iran? ›

While only 32% of Iranians consider themselves Shia Muslims, 9% have claimed to be atheists and 22% do not align with any religion. Half of the population used to believe but does not anymore and 6% have converted to a new religion.

Is there a death penalty in Iran? ›

Iran is one of the countries that uses the death penalty most frequently. According to HRANA, the authorities executed 306 people between March 21 and September 12. Iranian authorities should immediately halt these trials and quash the death sentences, Human Rights Watch said.

What country has no taxes at all? ›

Which countries are tax free? There are currently 14 countries with zero income tax in the world: Antigua and Barbuda, St. Kitts and Nevis, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Brunei, Bahrain, the Bahamas, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Monaco, Kuwait, Qatar, Somalia, and Western Sahara.

Does Iran have Social Security? ›

As the main institution responsible for delivering social insurance in Iran, under article 3, the SSO aims to provide benefits in response to the following life events: Old age pension. Survivor pension. Disability pension.

Does Iran have a good quality of life? ›

Our data for each country are based on all entries from all cities in that country.
Quality of Life in Iran.
Purchasing Power Index21.29Very Low
Safety Index50.11Moderate
Health Care Index52.33Moderate
Climate Index63.66High
Cost of Living Index34.58Very Low
5 more rows

Who is the richest man in Iran? ›

Asadollah Asgaroladi
BornMarch 6, 1934 Tehran, Iran
DiedSeptember 13, 2019 (aged 85) Tehran, Iran
4 more rows

Is Iran allied with Russia? ›

Currently Russia and Iran share a close economic and military alliance, and both countries are subject to heavy sanctions by most Western nations.

Who are Iran's allies? ›

China and India have also emerged as friends of Iran; these three countries face similar challenges in the global economy as they industrialize, and consequently find themselves aligned on a number of issues. Iran maintains regular diplomatic and commercial relations with Russia and the former Soviet Republics.

When did Iran convert to Islam? ›

The Islamization of Iran occurred as a result of the Muslim conquest of Persia in 633–654 AD. It was a long process by which Islam, though initially rejected, eventually spread among the population on the Iranian Plateau.

When did Iran become Shia? ›

First, a brief history lesson: How did Iran become Shia? Until the 16th century, Persia was mostly Sunni. At the turn of that century, the Safavid dynasty conquered much of what is now Iran and made Shiism the official religion.

When did Iran start wearing hijabs? ›

Wearing hijab became obligatory for all Iranian women from April 1983. Since then, all women have been legally obliged to wear hijab in public, even non-Muslims and foreigners visiting Iran.

How much money did the shah take from Iran? ›

The source termed the figure of $1 billion for the shah's personal fortune a "gross underestimate" and said it amounted to many times that.

What countries did the CIA overthrow? ›

  • 5.2.1 1950–1953: Burma and China.
  • 5.2.2 1952: Egypt.
  • 5.2.3 1952: Guatemala.
  • 5.2.4 1952–1953: Iran.
  • 5.2.5 1954: Guatemala.
  • 5.2.6 1956–1957: Syria.
  • 5.2.7 1957–1959: Indonesia.
  • 5.2.8 1959–1963: South Vietnam.

What are two reasons the Shah was forced to flee Iran? ›

Faced with an army mutiny and violent demonstrations against his rule, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, the leader of Iran since 1941, is forced to flee the country.

What happened to the Shah's wife? ›

Farah now divides her time between Washington, D.C., and Paris. She also makes an annual July visit to the late Shah's mausoleum at Cairo's al-Rifa'i Mosque.

What happened to the Shah's son? ›

In this April 15, 2005, file photo, Alireza Pahlavi is seen during Prince Rainier III's funeral procession in Monaco. Pahlavi, son of the late shah of Iran, has been found dead of an apparent suicide at his home in Boston.

What was the religion in Iran before the revolution? ›

Prior to the Muslim Arab invasion of Persia (Iran), Zoroastrianism had been the primary religion of Iranian people.

Did Queen Elizabeth ever visit Iran? ›

On February 25, 1961, Queen Elizabeth II landed at Tehran's Mehrabad Airport to start a 10-day official visit to Iran in response to the Shah's visit to Britain two years earlier.

Who was the last royal family of Iran? ›

The Pahlavi dynasty (Persian: دودمان پهلوی) was the last Iranian royal dynasty, ruling for almost 54 years between 1925 and 1979.

Did the shah of Iran have a harem? ›

Only their chaste eyes could look at the hundreds of pictures he took in the palace harem, home to his 84 wives and nearly twice as many concubines. The women were probably his favourite subject, though he was also fond of snapping his cat, Babri Khan.

What was Iran called before Iran? ›

Ancient Iran, historically known as Persia, was the dominant nation of western Asia for over twelve centuries, with three successive native dynasties—the Achaemenid, the Parthian, and the Sasanian—controlling an empire of unprecedented size and complexity.

What religion was Persia before Islam? ›

Zoroastrianism was the state religion of three Persian dynasties, until the Muslim conquest of Persia in the seventh century A.D. Zoroastrian refugees, called Parsis, escaped Muslim persecution in Iran by emigrating to India.

Why do Iranians call themselves Persians? ›

Generally, “Persia” today refers to Iran because the country formed over the center of the ancient Persian empire and the majority of its original citizens inhabited that land. Modern Iran is comprised of a large number of different ethnic and tribal groups.

What type of party system does Iran have? ›

The politics of Iran takes place in the framework of an Islamic theocracy which was formed following the overthrow of Iran's millennia-long monarchy by the 1979 Iranian Islamic Revolution.

What is the Iranian communist theory? ›

Revolutionary theory

The party sees itself as guiding the Proletariat class of Iran through a revolutionary struggle. This Proletariat is open to all irrespective of nationality, gender or language. The party itself is open to both men and women and tolerates no antiwomen conduct.

What is the main goal of a Marxist? ›

As we all know, the main goal of Marxism is to achieve a classless society throughout the world. As great as this sounds to most people, there are many Capitalist ideologies which would have to be eliminated before this could ever happen.

What is the main ideology of Marxism? ›

Marx emphasized ideology as rooted in contradictory relations, specifically operating to distort and thus justify the exploitation taking place in the capitalist exchange process.

Who is the most powerful Shia leader in the world? ›

Ali Hosseini Khamenei (Persian: علی حسینی خامنه‌ای, romanized: ʼAlī Ḥosaynī Khāmeneʼī, pronounced [ʔæˈliː hosejˈniː xɒːmeneˈʔiː] ( listen); born 19 April 1939) is a Twelver Shia marja' and the second and current supreme leader of Iran, in office since 1989.

What are the 2 major political parties in Iran? ›

Islamic Iran Solidarity PartyAli-Asghar Ahmadi
Democracy PartyMostafa Kavakebian
Will of the Iranian Nation PartyAhmad Hakimipour
Association of the Women of the Islamic RepublicZahra Mostafavi Khomeini
9 more rows

Are marriages arranged in Iran? ›

In the past the parents and older members of the family arranged almost all marriages. This is still the case in rural areas and with traditional families. Modern couples however, choose their own mate but their parents' consent is still very important and is considered by both sides.

Why did the US overthrow the Iranian government? ›

The overthrow of Iran's elected government in 1953 ensured Western control of Iran's petroleum resources and prevented the Soviet Union from competing for Iranian oil. Some Iranian clerics cooperated with the western spy agencies because they were dissatisfied with Mosaddegh's secular government.

Why did the Soviet Union support Iran? ›

As a 1980 CIA document put it, "The Soviets see Iran as a greater geopolitical prize than Iraq... while hoping to prevent an Iranian turn to the West and to improve their own relations with Tehran", the Soviets also value their ties with Iraq.

What are the five stages of communism? ›

According to Marx's theory of historical materialism, societies pass through six stages — primitive communism, slave society, feudalism, capitalism, socialism and finally global, stateless communism.

Is a Marxist a communist? ›

Is Marxism the Same Thing As Communism? Marxism is a philosophy, while communism is a system of government based on Marxist principles. Marx envisioned a society in which workers owned the means of production. In real-world communism, governments own the means of production.

What is the difference between a Marxist and a communist? ›

Marxism is a social, political, and economic theory originated from Karl Marx, focusing on the struggles between capitalists and the working class. Communism is based upon the ideas of common ownership and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

What is Marxism vs socialism? ›

Under socialism, the means of production are owned or controlled by the state for the benefit of all, an arrangement that is compatible with democracy and a peaceful transition from capitalism. Marxism justifies and predicts the emergence of a stateless and classless society without private property.

What countries are Marxism? ›

Today, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the ruling parties of China, Cuba, Laos and Vietnam (all one-party socialist republics), as well as many other Communist parties. The state ideology of North Korea is derived from Marxism–Leninism, although its evolution is disputed.

What are problems with Marxism? ›

Eight criticisms of Marx's view of society are:
  • The class structure today is more complex.
  • Capitalism today is less exploitative.
  • Control of the economic base does not mean control of the superstructure.
  • False consciousness is a problem concept in postmodern society.
  • There is less alienation today.
Apr 11, 2016

What is Marxism in layman's terms? ›

To define Marxism in simple terms, it's a political and economic theory where a society has no classes. Every person within the society works for a common good, and class struggle is theoretically gone. Sounds simple right?


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4. History of foundation of ministry of intelligence and "Toodeh Party' leaders on trial
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5. Tudeh at 80: The Tudeh Party Before and After the Revolution
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6. Russian Revolution at 90 - Iranian Communist
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